The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study
The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a collaborative, multi-institutional study funded by the National Cancer Institute since 1993. The goal of CCSS is to investigate the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with the treatment regimens for children and adolescents treated for cancer during the past 30 years. It was created to gain new knowledge about the long-term effects of cancer and therapy and to educate survivors and the medical community about the potential impacts of cancer diagnosis and treatment. The results obtained from CCSS are used to help design treatment protocols and interventions that will result in an increase in survival while minimizing the harmful late effects. This research is also used to develop and expand programs for early detection and prevention of late effects in children and adolescent cancer survivors. The CCSS consists of over 14,000 participants diagnosed with cancer between 1970 to 1986 and 10,000 survivors diagnosed between 1987 and 1999 for a total of over 24,000 childhood cancer survivors who have survived at least 5 years after treatment for cancer. There are 4,000 siblings from the survivors who were recruited as comparison subjects. CCSS is an excellent resource for the development, testing, and dissemination of intervention strategies. Several randomized intervention studies among high-risk childhood cancer survivor populations have been completed (e.g., studies about breast cancer screening, cardiovascular screening, and smoking cessation). CCSS-based research provided the foundation for all of these studies. An intervention study is ongoing for sun protection among survivors at highest risk for radiation-associated skin cancer, and a second intervention to reduce obesity in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been initiated. CCSS consists of 28 clinical centers in the United States and Canada.