The consortium’s primary objective is to expeditiously develop and implement pediatric phase I and pilot studies, thus facilitating the integration of advances in cancer biology and therapy into the treatment of childhood cancer. The consortium includes approximately 20 pediatric COG institutions with expertise and experience in developmental therapeutics. During the past 5 years they have studied over 20 different new agents or combinations in children with cancer. Pharmacokinetic and biological correlative studies are key components of the consortium’s phase I trials and are increasingly important for new agents with specific molecular targets. The consortium conducts pilot studies of promising multi-agent regimens. These studies are an important step in the integration of new agents into the therapy of specific childhood cancers and require careful monitoring for toxicity and safety. After their initial evaluation for safety in children by the consortium, agents and regimens can be studied within the larger group of COG institutions to determine their role in the treatment of specific childhood cancers. The Consortium works closely with specific disease groups in COG to obtain agents of interest and design specific strategies in a timely manner in order for children and adolescents with cancer to have access to the newest therapies.